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Computational Linguistics

    As Uszkoreit says, computational linguistics (CL) is a discipline between linguistics and computer science which is concerned with the computational aspects of the human language faculty. It belongs to the cognitive sciences and overlaps with the field of artificial intelligence (AI), a branch of computer science aiming at computational models of human cognition. Computational linguistics has applied and theoretical components. Theoretical CL takes up issues in theoretical linguistics and cognitive science. It deals with formal theories about the linguistic knowledge that a human needs for generating and understanding language. Today these theories have reached a degree of complexity that can only be managed by employing computers. Computational linguists develop formal models simulating aspects of the human language faculty and implement them as computer programmes. These programmes constitute the basis for the evaluation and further development of the theories. In addition to linguistic theories, findings from cognitive psychology play a major role in simulating linguistic competence. Within psychology, it is mainly the area of psycholinguisticsthat examines the cognitive processes constituting human language use. The relevance of computational modelling for psycholinguistic research is reflected in the emergence of a new subdiscipline: computational psycholinguistics.The rapid growth of the Internet/WWW and the emergence of the information society poses exciting new challenges to language technology.  Although the new media combine text, graphics, sound and movies, the whole world of multimedia information can only be structured, indexed and navigated through language. For browsing, navigating, filtering and processing the information on the web, we need software that can get at the contents of documents. Language technology for content management is a necessary precondition for turning the wealth of digital information into collective knowledge. The increasing multilinguality of the web constitutes an additional challenge for our discipline. The global web can only be mastered with the help of multilingual tools for indexing and navigating. Systems for crosslingual information and knowledge management will surmount language barriers for e-commerce, education and international cooperation.Computational linguistics as a field predates artificial intelligence, a field under which it is often grouped. Computational linguistics originated with efforts in the United States in the 1950s to use computers to automatically translate texts from foreign languages, particularly Russian scientific journals, into English. Since computers had proven their ability to do arithmetic much faster and more accurately than humans, it was thought to be only a short matter of time before the technical details could be taken care of that would allow them the same remarkable capacity to process language.
    Retrieved: 28-04-2008        
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abril 28, 2008 - Posted by | Human Language Technologies |

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